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Acute Glomerulonephritis

Acute glomerulonephritis refers to a specific set of renal diseases in which an immunologic mechanism triggers inflammation and proliferation of glomerular tissue. The inflammatory process usually begins with an infection or injury (e.g., burn, trauma), then the protective immune system fights off the infection, scar tissue forms, and the process is complete.Acute glomerulonephritis is an inflammatory disease of both kidneys predominantly affecting children from ages two to 12. Chronic glomerulonephritis can develop over a period of 10-20 years and is most often associated with other systemic disease, including diabetes, malaria , hepatitis.

Acute nephritic syndrome is a group of disorders that cause inflammation of the internal kidney structures (specifically, the glomeruli). Most original research focuses on the poststreptococcal patient. Acute glomerulonephritis is currently described as a clinical syndrome that frequently manifests as a sudden onset of hematuria, proteinuria, and red cell casts. This clinical picture often is accompanied by hypertension, edema, and impaired renal function. which lead to oliguria or anuria. With the development of the microscope, Langhans was able to describe the corresponding glomerular changes. The inflammatory process usually begins with an infection or injury (e.g., burn, trauma), then the protective immune system fights off the infection, scar tissue forms, and the process is complete.

Cause of Acute Glomerulonephritis

Some are mostlty causes of Acute Glomerulonephritis follows:

  • Immunoglobulin A nephropathy (IgA nephropathy, Berger's disease)
  • Membranoproliferative nephritis (type of kidney inflammation)
  • Postinfectious GN (GN that results after an infection)
  • Other specific agents include viruses and parasites, systemic and renal disease, visceral abscesses, endocarditis, infected grafts or shunts, and pneumonia.
  • Cryoglobulinemia
  • Goodpasteur's syndrome (membranous antiglomerular basement membrane disease)
  • Lupus nephritis
  • Schönlein-Henoch purpura
  • Bacterial causes other than group A streptococci may be diplococcal, streptococcal, staphylococcal, or mycobacterial. Salmonella typhosa , Brucella suis , Treponema pallidum , Corynebacterium bovis , and actinobacilli also have been identified.
  • IgA nephropathy
  • Henoch-Schonlein purpura
  • Hemolytic uremic syndrome

Symptoms of Acute Glomerulonephritis

The most common symptoms of Acute Glomerulonephritis:

  • Cough with blood-tinged sputum
  • Fever
  • Joint or muscle pain
  • Rash
  • General aches and pains ( joint pain , muscle aches )
  • General ill feeling (malaise)
  • Headache
  • Blurred vision
  • Slow, sluggish, lethargic movement

Treatment of Acute Glomerulonephritis

Some treatment methods of Acute Glomerulonephritis:

  • Decrease the damage to the glomeruli
  • Decrease the metabolic demands on the kidneys
  • Improve kidney function
  • The goal of treatment is to stop the ongoing inflammation and lessen the degree of scarring that ensues. Depending on the diagnosis, there are different treatment strategies.
  • Bedrest may be recommended.
  • The diet may include restriction of salt, fluids, and potassium. Medications may include anti-hypertensive medications to control high blood pressure.
  • Corticosteroids or other anti-inflammatory medications may be used to reduce inflammation.


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