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Diabetes is a disease in which the body does not produce or properly use insulin. It is a disease characterized by persistent hyperglycemia (high glucose blood sugar ). The cause of diabetes continues to be a mystery, although both genetics and environmental factors such as obesity and lack of exercise appear to play roles. Of the more than 20.8 million people with diabetes in the United States, about 5 percent to 10 percent have the type 1 form of the disease. Glucose in the blood gives you energ the kind you need when you walk briskly, run for a bus, ride your bike, take an aerobics class, and perform your day-to-day chores About one of every 400 to 600 children and adolescents in the United States has or will have type 1 diabetes. . In order to determine whether or not a patient has pre-diabetes or diabetes, health care providers conduct a Fasting Plasma Glucose Test (FPG) or an Oral Glucose Tolerance Test (OGTT). Insulin allows glucose to move from the blood into liver, muscle, and fat cells, where it is used for fuel. Type 1 is generally due to autoimmune destruction of the insulin-producing cells, while type 2 and gestational diabetes are due to insulin resistance by tissues . Living with type 1 diabetes can still be a challenge, but improvements in patient education, blood sugar monitoring and insulin delivery have simplified the daily routine of managing the disease These include cardiovascular disease (doubled risk), chronic renal failure (it is the main cause for dialysis in developed world adults), retinal damage which can lead to blindness and is the most significant cause of adult blindness in the non-elderly in the developed world, nerve damage , erectile dysfunction (impotence) and gangrene with risk of amputation of toes, feet, and even legs.

Diabetes mellitus is a disorder of metabolism, most prominently carbohydrate metabolism. Although type 1 diabetes can develop at any age, it most commonly appears in children, adolescents and young adults. There are 20.8 million children and adults in the United States, or 7% of the population, who have diabetes Elevated levels of blood glucose ( hyperglycemia ) lead to spillage of glucose into the urine , hence the term sweet urine. Normally, blood glucose levels are tightly controlled by insulin, a hormone produced by the pancreas . The American Diabetes Association recommends the FPG because it is easier, faster, and less expensive to perform. Thanks to these and other advances, people with type 1 diabetes may now have life expectancies comparable to those of people without diabetes. In patients with diabetes, the absence or insufficient production of insulin causes hyperglycemia. Since the first therapeutic use of insulin (1921) diabetes has been a treatable but chronic condition , and the main risks to health are its characteristic long-term complications. If the two-hour blood glucose level is at 200 mg/dl or higher, the person tested has diabetes.

Diabetes is a metabolic disorder, arising either from -

1) Relative or absolute deficiency of a digestive hormone called innsulin or

2) Inability or resistance of body-cells to use the available insulin.

The diabetes disorder throws the metabolism of dietary carbodydrates, fats and proteins into a complete disarray. It should be remenbered that diabetes cannot be cured completely. However, it can be fully controlled by proper remedies. Thus, diabete require life-long treatment with preservance and care. If this is not done, the complications arising out of this disease make vitim's life unbearable.

Causes of Diabetes

Some causes of Diabetes :

  • A predisposition to develop type 1 diabetes may run in families but much less so than for type 2.
  • Environmental factors, such as certain types of viral infections, may also contribute.
  • Your body does not respond properly to insulin , making it difficult for your cells to get sugar from the blood to make energy.
  • Your pancreas does not make enough insulin.
  • neurovascular factors, leading to damage to the blood vessels that carry oxygen and nutrients to the nerves
  • In response to the increased glucose level, the pancreas normally releases more insulin into the bloodstream to help glucose enter the cells and lower blood glucose levels after a meal.
  • metabolic factors, such as high blood glucose, long duration of diabetes, possibly low levels of insulin, and abnormal blood fat levels
  • . This extra insulin "unlocks" your cells so that more sugar can enter, providing your body with energy as well as maintaining a normal level of sugar in your blood.

Symptoms of Diabetes

Some common symptoms of Diabetes :

  • Extreme hunger. The basic defect in type 1 diabetes an inability to produce insulin, the hormone necessary for glucose to enter cells and fuel their functions leaves your muscles and organs energy depleted.
  • increased urination, especially at night
  • weight loss
  • The extra stress can cause diabetic ketoacidosis.
  • If not properly treated, type 2 diabetes can lead to complications like blindness, kidney failure, heart disease, and nerve damage.
  • Frequent or severe skin or infections with non-virulent bugs - thrush, boils, ringworm.
  • Passing large amounts of urine often. Waking up most nights to pass urine.
  • Tingling or numbness in your hands or feet.
  • Lots of skin, gum, or bladder infections.

Treatment of Diabetes

  • Eat a consistent, well-balanced diet that is high in fiber , low in saturated fat, and low in concentrated sweets.
  • It will also help to keep your blood sugar at a relatively even level and avoid excessively low or high blood sugar levels, which can be dangerous and even life threatening.
  • Early in the course of mild adult diabetes, exercise and a low sugar diet can be enough to bring blood sugar levels back within normal range.
  • Exercising regularly to help your body use insulin better.
  • Blood glucose monitoring, meal planning, exercise, and oral drugs or insulin injections are needed to control blood glucose levels.
  • Insulin can only be given by injection, and it may be used alone or with other medicines that are in the form of pills.
  • Still, adequate blood glucose control can be achieved with careful attention to diet, regular exercise, home blood glucose monitoring, and multiple insulin injections throughout the day.


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