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Mallory Weiss Syndrome

Mallory-Weiss syndrome is characterized by a nonpenetrating mucosal tear at the gastroesophageal junction that is hypothesized to arise from events that suddenly raise transabdominal pressure, such as lifting, retching, or vomiting. Alcoholism is a strong predisposing factor. Mallory-Weiss tears are responsible for approximately 5% of cases of upper gastrointestinal bleeding.

Mallory-Weiss syndrome is a condition characterized by a tear and bleeding in the mucous membrane near where the esophagus and stomach join. A condition characterized by mucosal tears at the ESOPHAGOGASTRIC JUNCTION, sometimes with HEMATEMESIS. Any disorder that initiates vomiting may result in the development of a Mallory-Weiss tear, which develops as a linear laceration at the gastroesophageal junction because the esophagus and stomach are cylindrical. Patients with increased pressure in the vein leading into the liver (portal hypertension ) are more likely to bleed heavily from an esophageal laceration than those whose blood pressure is normal. In most of the patients the condition was associated with chronic alcoholism.

Mallory-Weiss syndrome is usually caused by forceful or prolonged vomiting or coughing. Mallory-Weiss syndrome may also be caused by epileptic convulsions. Alcoholics and patients on dialysis are most susceptible2n some cases, embolization of the arteries supplying the region may be performed by an interventional radiologist to stop the bleeding.Bleeding from the tear causes a disruption in fluid and electrolyte balance of the body.

Causes of Mallory Weiss Syndrome

Here are the list of the possible causes of Mallory Weiss Syndrome:

  • Detailed information about the causes of Mallory-Weiss syndrome including medication causes and drug interaction causes can be found in our causes pages.
  • Mallory-Weiss syndrome is usually caused by forceful or prolonged vomiting or coughing.
  • Bleeding from the tear causes a disruption in fluid and electrolyte balance of the body
  • Acute inflammation of the liver causes vomiting in 10-20% of patients.
  • Complications of endoscopy may cause esophageal tears (<0.01% in children) and are almost always associated with a patient who is retching or struggling during the procedure
  • Gastrointestinal bleeding
  • Stomach bleeding
  • Rectal bleeding.

Symptoms of Mallory Weiss Syndrome

Some sign and symptoms related to Mallory Weiss Syndrome:

  • A symptom may loosely be said to be a physical condition which indicates a particular illness or disorder (e.g. Longman, 1995).
  • Vomiting bright red blood
  • Bloody stools
  • Symptoms of the Silent Killer Diseases
  • Lesser known silent killer diseases
  • symptom can more simply be defined as any feature which is noticed by the patient. A sign is noticed by the doctor or others.
  • Only your doctor can provide adequate diagnosis of any signs or symptoms and whether they are indeed Mallory-Weiss syndrome symptoms.
  • Immediate medical attention should be sought if these symptoms are present.

Treatment of Mallory Weiss Syndrome

  • Coagulation therapy is done by passing a special probe that heats up through an endoscope to the site to stop the bleeding.
  • The patient is resuscitated and stabilized with blood transfusions and intravenous fluids to restore the fluid and electrolyte balance.
  • In most cases, Mallory-Weiss tears resolve spontaneously; however, consider pharmaceutical therapy in cases of persistent bleeding or complications (see Medication ).
  • Esophageal balloon tamponade, although useful for patients with esophageal varices, should be considered only in extreme cases because the use of an esophageal balloon increases the risk of extending the esophageal tear.
  • Administration or application of remedies to a patient or for a disease or injury; medicinal or surgical management; therapy.
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