The majority of carcinoids caused by hypergastrinemia occur in association with either pernicious anemia (75%) or Zollinger-Ellison syndrome (5%). Carcinoids associated with Zollinger-Ellison syndrome occur almost exclusively in patients with MEN 1, in which loss of 11q13 has been reported. Carcinoids caused by hypergastrinemia tend to be multicentric, less than 1 cm in size, and have a low potential for metastatic spread or development of carcinoid syndrome. Small lesions may be successfully treated with endoscopic resection followed by periodic endoscopic surveillance. Antrectomy reduces serum gastrin levels and may lead to regression of small tumors. Patients with large or multiple carcinoids should undergo surgical tumor resection.
A carcinoid tumour, sometimes referred to as simply carcinoid, is a tumour of the neuroendocrine system. The neuroendocrine system is a network of glands that produce particular hormones and send them into the bloodstream to affect the function of different organs in the body. Carcinoid tumours describe a range of neoplasms arising from neuroendocrine cells or their precursors. Of intestinal carcinoids, the most common sites are in the midgut, especially the appendix and terminal ileum. Carcinoid tumors act like the cells they come from. They often release certain hormone-like substances into the bloodstream. In about 10% of people, the carcinoid tumors spread and grow very large and release high amounts of those hormones.Carcinoid tumours often grow slowly and it may be several years before any symptoms appear and the tumour is diagnosed.
Most tumors in the intestinal tract come from different glandular cells (the kind of gland cell that produce mucus rather than hormones) of the inner lining of the digestive system. These can be either adenomas (benign) or adenocarcinomas (malignant). Like most cells of the body, gastrointestinal system neuroendocrine cells sometimes undergo certain changes that cause them to grow too much and form tumors.The carcinoid syndrome develops when products, chiefly serotonin, are released by the tumour in large amounts and escape hepatic degradation. Carcinoid tumours are rare neuroendocrine lesions Arise from amine precursor uptake and decarboxylation (APUD) cells Approximately 1,000 are identified in the United Kingdom each year .
Cause of Carcinoid Tumour
Some causes of Carcinoid Tumour :
Symptoms of Carcinoid Tumour
Here are some common symptoms of Carcinoid Tumour
Treatment of Carcinoid Tumour
Some treatment of Carcinoid Tumour :
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