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Ulcerative colitis is a disease that causes inflammation and sores, called ulcers, in the lining of the rectum and colon. Ulcerative colitis rarely affects the small intestine except for the lower section, called the ileum.People with colitis may have abdominal pain, diarrhea, rectal bleeding, painful spasms (tenesmus), lack of appetite, fever, and fatigue. Ulcerative colitis is closely related to another condition of inflammation of the intestines called Crohn's disease. Because of the name, IBD is often confused with irritable bowel syndrome ("IBS"), a troublesome, but much less serious condition. Ulcerative colitis is similar to Crohn's disease , another form of IBD. They affect approximately 500,000 to 2 million people In the United States. Both inflame the lining of your digestive tract, and both can cause severe bouts of watery or bloody diarrhea and abdominal pain. Ulcerative colitis can occur in people of any age, but it usually starts between the ages of 15 and 30, and less frequently between 50 and 70 years of age. Although dietary modification may reduce the discomfort of a person with the disease, ulcerative colitis is not thought to be caused by dietary factors. You may have abdominal pain , diarrhea, rectal bleeding , painful spasms (tenesmus), lack of appetite, fever, and fatigue.

Colitis is a digestive disease characterized by inflammation of the colon . If only the left side of the colon is affected it is called limited or distal colitis. More than 500,000 Americans have ulcerative colitis, an inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) that causes chronic inflammation of the digestive tract. In patients with ulcerative colitis, ulcers and inflammation of the inner lining of the colon lead to symptoms of abdominal pain, diarrhea , and rectal bleeding. Although the symptoms of ulcerative colitis can sometimes diminish on their own, the disease usually requires treatment to go into remission Crohn's disease differs because it causes inflammation deeper within the intestinal wall and can occur in other parts of the digestive system including the small intestine, mouth, esophagus, and stomach. A higher incidence of ulcerative colitis is seen in Whites and people of Jewish descent. Ulcerative colitis is rarely seen in Eastern Europe, Asia, and South America, and is rare in the black population. Although ulcerative colitis is treated as though it were an autoimmune disease , there is no consensus that it is such. Treatment is with anti-inflammatory drugs, immunosuppression (suppressing the immune system), and biological therapy targeting specific components of the immune response.

Causes of Colitis

The common Causes of Colitis :

  • Those such as rotavirus or Norwalk can damage the mucous membrane lining your intestine and disturb fluid absorption.
  • These "bugs" have developed a variety of ways to overcome our natural defenses and ultimately cause colitis.
  • Because you're more likely to develop ulcerative colitis if you have a parent or sibling with the disease, scientists suspect that genetic makeup may play a contributing role.
  • Antibiotic therapy can lead to acute colitis or to pseudomembranous colitis, a particularly serious disease.
  • Birth control pills have been implicated as a possible cause of Crohn disease.
  • In patients with Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis, however, the immune system is abnormally and chronically activated in the absence of any known invader.
  • This is a common disorder of the intestine that leads to cramps, excessive production of gas, bloating, and changes in bowel habits. No one knows the cause of irritable bowel syndrome

Symptoms of Colitis

Some common symptoms of Colitis :

  • joint pain
  • Bloody diarrhea, often containing pus or mucus
  • Loss of body fluids and nutrients
  • Lower abdominal discomfort or cramps
  • Frequent loose bowel movements with or without blood
  • Signs and symptoms of colitis include pain , tenderness in the abdomen, fever , swelling of the colon tissue, bleeding , erythema (redness) of the surface of the colon, rectal bleeding, and ulcerations of the colon.
  • Proctosigmoiditis involves inflammation of the rectum and the sigmoid colon (a short segment of the colon contiguous to the rectum).
  • Pancolitis or universal colitis refers to inflammation affecting the entire colon (right colon, left colon, transverse colon and the rectum).
  • Fever, lethargy, and loss of appetite
  • Affecting the entire colon, pancolitis causes bouts of bloody diarrhea that may be severe, abdominal cramps and pain, fatigue, weight loss, and night sweats.
  • As the name suggests, inflammation extends from the rectum up the left side through the sigmoid and descending colon.

Treatment of Colitis

  • They may be used by people who have moderate to severe ulcerative colitis or who do not respond to 5-ASA drugs.
  • Aminosalicylates (balsalazide, mesalazine, olsalazine, sulfasalazine)
  • Relieving symptoms and ending sudden (acute) attacks as quickly as possible.
  • The child's tolerance for specific medications, procedures, or therapies
  • More serious cases may require steroid drugs, antibiotics, or drugs that affect the body's immune system.
  • Severe attacks of inflammatory bowel disease require hospital admission and supportive care including bowel rest, IV fluids, and correction of any electrolyte imbalance.
  • However, about 20 to 40 percent of ulcerative colitis children eventually require surgery for removal of the colon because of massive bleeding, chronic debilitating illness, perforation of the colon, or risk of cancer.
  • Although it can be effective in reducing symptoms of the disease, it has a number of side effects, including nausea, vomiting, heartburn and headache.
  • Preventing or delaying new attacks.


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