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Hypoglycemia is a condition characterized by an abnormally low level of blood sugar (glucose), your body's main energy source. Hypoglycemia can produce a variety of symptoms and effects but the principal problems arise from an inadequate supply of glucose as fuel to the brain , resulting in impairment of function ( neuroglycopenia ) These signs or symptoms usually include altered mental status and/or sympathetic nervous system stimulation. . Hypoglycemia, sometimes called an insulin reaction, can happen even during those times when you're doing all you can to manage your diabetes Insulin is the hormone secreted by your pancreas that regulates your level of blood sugar. The most common forms of moderate and severe hypoglycemia occur as a complication of treatment of diabetes Although the incidence of drug-induced hypoglycemia is rare in the general population, its incidence is not uncommon in elderly and diabetic patients.

Hypoglycemia is commonly associated with diabetes. However, a wide variety of conditions, many of them rare, can cause low blood sugar in people without diabetes. It often happens at the time when insulin action is at its peak, during or after strenuous exercise or when a meal is delayed. We describe a case of hypoglycemia in an elderly patient taking sulfonamide antibiotics. This triad includes the documentation of low blood sugar, presence of symptoms, and reversal of these symptoms when the blood sugar level is restored to normal.

Causes of Hypoglycemia

The common causes of Hypoglycemia :

  • Hypoglycemia may result from medication changes or overdoses, infection, diet changes, metabolic changes over time, or activity changes; however, no acute cause may be found.
  • Careful consideration should be given to all diabetic patients presenting with hypoglycemia. New medications, activity changes, and infection should be considered.
  • too little food eaten, as compared to the amount of insulin taken
  • more exercise than usual
  • Taking someone else's oral diabetes medication accidentally is a common cause of hypoglycemia.
  • Alcohol. Excessive alcohol consumption can block the process of glucose production, depleting your body's stores of glycogen.
  • Newer drugs for diabetes such as metformin (Glucophage) can also cause hypoglycemia when used in combination with sulfonylureas.

Symtoms of Hypoglycemia

Some are common symtoms of Hypoglycemia :

  • Symptoms and signs of hypoglycemia including anxiety, shakiness, palpitations, sweating, nightmares, irritability, and hunger
  • meals or snacks that are too small, delayed, or skipped
  • nervousness and shakiness
  • Sudden moodiness or behavior changes, such as crying for no apparent reason
  • Clumsy or jerky movements
  • Confusion, abnormal behavior or both, such as the inability to complete routine tasks
  • Loss of consciousness, uncommonly
  • Reversal of symptoms with administration of glucose.

Treatment of Hypoglycemia

The most importent treatment of Hypoglycemia :

  • EMS care generally consists of drawing serum glucose or Accucheck prior to administering D50 in the field. This procedure usually is performed in the case of an unconscious patient or a patient with altered mental status.
  • Considering the multiple causes of a sudden episode of hypoglycemia in a patient with previously well-controlled diabetes, advising transport and ED evaluation is prudent.
  • In addition, a diabetic's treatment regimen should be reviewed to avoid further problems.
  • A tumor in your pancreas or elsewhere is usually treated by surgical removal
  • Treatment of the underlying condition that's causing your hypoglycemia, to prevent it from recurring
  • your child's tolerance for specific medications, procedures, or therap


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