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Idiopathic Thrombocytopenic Purpura

Idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura(ITP) is a bleeding disorder characterized by too few platelets in the blood. Platelets (thrombocytes) are colorless blood cells that stop blood loss by clumping together at the site of a blood vessel injury and forming plugs in vessel holes.

People with idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura, because of their low platelet count, tend to bruise easily and bleed longer when injured. Nosebleeds and bleeding gums also are common.

Idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura is often divided into two categories: acute and chronic. Acute ITP is the most common form and occurs most frequently in children, typically after a viral infection. It usually goes away on its own within six months. The disease occurs when immune system cells, called lymphocytes, produce antibodies against platelets. Platelets are necessary for normal blood clotting. They clump together to plug small holes in damaged blood vessels.

Chronic ITP lasts longer than six months and is more common in adults. There are two types of ITP: acute (temporary or short-term) and chronic (long-lasting). Acute ITP generally lasts less than 6 months. It mainly occurs in children, both boys and girls, and is the most common type of ITP. It often occurs after an infection caused by a virus. ITP affects women more frequently than men, and is more common in children than adults. in Children, equal numbers of boys and girls are affected.

Chronic ITP is long-lasting (6 months or longer) and mostly affects adults. However, some teenagers and even younger children can get this type of ITP. Chronic ITP affects women 2 to 3 times more often than men. Treatment depends on how severe the bleeding symptoms are and the platelet count. In mild cases, treatment may not be needed.

Causes of Idiopathic Thrombocytopenic Purpura

Common causes of Idiopathic Thrombocytopenic Purpura

  • Immunoglobulin G.
  • Antibodies( immune system).
  • Thrombocytes.

Symptoms of Idiopathic Thrombocytopenic Purpura

Common Symptoms of Idiopathic Thrombocytopenic Purpura

  • Bruising.
  • Nosebleed.
  • Bleeding in the mouth.
  • Bleeding into the skin.
  • Abnormally heavy menstruation.
  • Petechia.
  • Blood in the vomit, urine, or stool.
  • Bleeding in the head( head trauma).
  • Viral illness.

Treatment of Idiopathic Thrombocytopenic Purpura

Common Treatment of Idiopathic Thrombocytopenic Purpura

  • Prehospital airway control may be necessary for a large intracranial hemorrhage.
  • EMS providers should be aware of the potential for serious bleeding complications in patients with idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura (ITP).
  • Passing the blood over a protein A column (Prosorba) , which filters antibodies out of the blood stream.
  • Anti-RhD therapy can also be useful in people with specific blood types.
  • Your own preferences.
  • High-dose gamma globulin (an immune factor) injections.
  • Teenage girls may need to take hormones therapy to stop their menstrual cycle when their platelets are low if excessive bleeding occurs




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