Microscopic colitis is an inflammatory disease of the colon that causes chronic diarrhea and sometimes abdominal pain. . It removes water from the undigested food, stores it and then eliminates it from the body through bowel movements. Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis (two related conditions that are caused by abnormalities of the body's immune system in which the body is inappropriately making antibodies and chemicals that attack the colon) Collagenous colitis and lymphocytic colitis are also called microscopic colitis The colon is a tube-shaped organ that runs from the first part of the large bowel to the rectum. It does not appear to be contagious, but is sometimes hereditary.
Microscopic colitis occurs in up to one-third of patients with celiac sprue and should be considered in patients with continued diarrhea after institution of a gluten-free diet. Mild disease may be treated with antidiarrheal agents (loperamide, cholestyramine). NSAIDs should be discontinued. Microscopic colitis, which includes collagenous colitis and lymphocytic colitis , is characterized by chronic diarrhea caused by inflammation in the colon. It is not related to ulcerative colitis or to Crohn's disease, which are more severe forms of inflammatory bowel disease.
Microscopic colitis means there is no sign of inflammation on the surface of the colon when viewed with a colonoscopy or flexible sigmoidoscopy two tests that let a doctor look inside your large intestine. Patients undergoing either sigmoidoscopy or colonoscopy for unexplained diarrhea who have normal endoscopic findings should have biopsy samples taken to diagnose or rule out either form of microscopic colitis. There can be an association with other auto-immune disorders, such as thyroid disorders, diabetes and rheumatoid arthritis.
Types of Colitis
1. Lymphocytic colitis is characterised by increased lymphocytes in the lining of the colon.
2. Collagenous colitis is characterised by a thickening of the sub-epithelial collagen layer and increased lymphocytes in the lining of the colon.
Delayed release budesonide (Entocort) 9 mg/d for 6–8 weeks has been shown in several prospective controlled studies to induce clinical remission in more than 60–80% of patients and is well tolerated. After entering remission, clinical relapse occurs in 20–30% of patients within 3 years. Another type of microscopic colitis is lymphocytic colitis. In this case, biopsy samples reveal an increased number of lymphocytes, specialized white blood cells that fight infection and disease, within the lining of the colon. Lymphocytes may be seen in collagenous colitis, too, which somewhat blurs the distinction between the two conditions. A thickened collagen band isn't seen in lymphocytic colitis , though.
Cause of Microscopic Colitis
Here are the list of the possible cause of Microscopic Colitis:
Symtoms of Microscopic Colitis
Some sign and symtoms related to Microscopic Colitis:
Treatment of Microscopic Colitis
Treatment with 5-ASAs (sulfasalazine, mesalamine) is reported to be effective in uncontrolled studies. Bismuth subsalicylate (two tablets four times daily) for 2 months is effective in many patients. Patients refractory to ASAs or bismuth may be treated with corticosteroids or, rarely, immunosuppressives. No single treatment is accepted as the standard, and measuring response is difficult. Often a trial of anti-diarrhoeals is followed by anti-inflammatory drugs. Drugs that have been used in the treatment of microscopic colitis include 5-aminosalicylic acid, bismuth, and steroids.
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