Monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance (MGUS) is the most common of a spectrum of diseases called plasma cell dyscrasias. This progression cannot be prevented. The source of this protein is a small population of plasma cells in the bone marrow. It must be kept in mind that a monoclonal gammopathy does not represent cancer. Treatment for monoclonal gammopathy is not required, although research protocols are in existence for patients at centers that specialize in the treatment of monoclonal gammopathy and multiple myeloma. These disorders do not usually cause symptoms, so they are almost always discovered by chance when laboratory tests are performed for other purposes, such as to measure protein in the blood.
The monoclonal gammopathies include those diseases in which there is a proliferation of a single clone of immunoglobulin-forming cells that produce a homogeneous heavy chain, light chain, or complete molecule. The amino acid sequence of the variable (V) regions is fixed, and only one type of light chain is produced. Polyclonal gammopathies result from proliferation of many B cell clones, resulting in a diffuse increase of immunoglobulins.
However, because 20% of patients might go on to develop problems, careful follow-up is required.People with a monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance are usually monitored with a physical examination and blood and sometimes urine tests about twice a year, to determine if a progression to cancer is beginning to occur. occur. If progression is detected early, symptoms and complications of the cancerous disorder may be prevented or treated sooner. In general, monoclonal gammopathies of undetermined significance do not cause significant health problems. If there is no evidence of disease such as myeloma or lymphoma which would explain the presence of a monoclonal gammopathy it is called monoclonal gammopathy of unknown significance (MGUS). In about 80% of people with MGUS the level of monoclonal protein is low and the vast majority of these people will remain well and never have symptoms related to MGUS.
Symptoms and Signs of Monoclonal Gammopathy
No clinical symptoms are associated with Monoclonal Gammopathy of Uncertain Significance. In patients with MGUS, the quantity of M protein is stable, and the lymphadenopathy, splenomegaly, or bony lesions seen with multiple myeloma are absent. However, the monoclonal antibody can bind to nerves and lead to numbness, tingling, and weakness. In addition, some patients develop a polyneuropathy (damage to peripheral nerves) or other problems related to the secreted antibody.
Cause of Monoclonal Gammopathy
Monoclonal Gammopathy, like myeloma, is seen mainly in older people. It is most common over the age of 70 years. The cause of Monoclonal Gammopathy is unknown. The M-protein levels in people with a monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance often remain stable for years—25 years in some people—and do not require treatment.
Treatment of Monoclonal Gammopathy
Some useful treatment methods of Monoclonal Gammopathy:
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